The exposure of information or actions within an organization, public or private, that may be considered illegal, unethical, or abusive.
Where an organization lacks Transparency, whistleblowing may be an important means of revealing misconduct. As such, it often receives special legal protection against potential reprisals. Sometimes incentives may be offered to encourage whistleblowing. Researchers who uncover misconduct may face difficult choices in deciding whether to respect the assurances of confidentiality that are usually given to organizations that take part in research or to acknowledge a public interest in disclosure.