Applies both to individuals and to public and private groups and organisations. Individuals may seek to promote a theory or misrepresent a finding for personal advancement.
Can also apply to organisations seeking to control scientific findings for private advantage. Corporate, NGO and government interests associated with matters such as deregulation of banking, private prisons, fracking, and fossil fuels have been accused of deliberate distortion of the scientific record at the expense of the public good by overtly or covertly funding pro-industry research, suppressing contrary findings, and falsely discrediting opponents. Similar allegations have been made against political groups who misuse research to favour a particular public policy agenda or ideology.