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whistleblowing

The exposure of information or actions within an organization, public or private, that may be considered illegal, unethical, or abusive. Where an organization lacks Transparency, whistleblowing [...]

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weak AI

Also known as narrow AI, weak AI refers to a non-sentient computer system that operates within a predetermined range of skills and usually focuses on a singular task or small set of tasks. Most [...]

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vulnerability

A limited capacity to protect one’s own interests or Security from harm, exploitation or other wrongdoing. It is not a fixed property of individuals or institutions but depends upon the context [...]

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vested interests

Applies both to individuals and to public and private groups and organisations. Individuals may seek to promote a theory or misrepresent a finding for personal advancement. Can also apply to [...]

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value

In ethical thinking, value goes beyond the economic calculations that are often used to produce a single metric in order to evaluate the likely costs and benefits of actions for individuals and [...]

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trust

Firm belief in the reliability, truth, or ability of someone or something; to believe or accept a statement, story, etc. without seeking verification or evidence for it.

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transparency

A lack of hidden agendas and conditions associated with some action, accompanied by the open availability of all the information required for Collaboration, Cooperation, and collective decision [...]

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traceability

The degree to which a relationship can be established between two or more products of the development process, especially products having a predecessor-successor or master-subordinate [...]

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technical robustness

In computer science, robustness refers to the capacity of a computer or information system has to adapt and recover during errors or incorrect inputs. It refers to how technologically capacity to [...]

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stigmatisation

The process of marking social disapproval of some individual, group or institution that is not considered to comply with the expectations of those around it. Commonly, this disapproval is not [...]

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stakeholder

An individual or group of individuals who are directly or indirectly affected (either positively or negatively) by a particular action, organization, or group.

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singularity

Singularity refers to a hypothetical future scenario where AI becomes more intelligent than human beings and we no longer have control over it. It is a situation where it becomes so powerful that [...]

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sexism

Actions based on the belief or unexamined assumption that people recognized as members of one sex or gender are less intelligent, able, skilful, etc. than people recognized as members of the [...]

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security

Security is freedom from, or protection against, potential harm (or other unwanted coercive change) from external forces. Its beneficiaries may be individuals and social groups, institutions, or [...]

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safety

Safety is the effort to mitigate or manage Risk, wherever it may arise. It involves measures to protect the health, well-being and rights of researchers, research participants, particular [...]

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risk

Risk is the likelihood that research will result in damage, injury, liability, loss, or any other negative occurrence to some group or individual. The risk may fall on the wider society, on some [...]

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responsibility

Responsibility is the condition or fact of being answerable or accountable for something within one’s power, control, or management. In this context, it is often taken to mean that researchers [...]

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responsibility

Capability of fulfilling an obligation or duty; the quality of being reliable or trustworthy; the state or fact of being accountable for actions; liability for some action.

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respect

In this context, respect means having proper regard for the feelings, wishes or rights of another person, group or institution. It is the acknowledgement of Dignity and incorporated in the notion [...]

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repurpose

To reuse content in a different way from that which was originally intended, e.g. materials for training French native skills in business management might be repurposed for teaching non-native [...]

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reproducibility

The ability for an independent researcher to achieve the same results of an experiment, test, or study, under the same conditions. A research paper should include information necessary for other [...]

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reliability

The demonstration that repeated use of the same research method produces the same, or consistent, findings. It may refer either to the use of the same method by different researchers or by the [...]

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redress

The ability to seek justice for felt injustices, or to set right what one felt was wrong. In the context of AI and big data systems, the ability to seek recourse of actions as a result of [...]

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racism

Using the scientifically unsound concept of ‘race’ to generalise about and stigmatise specific groups, typically on spurious criteria such as country of origin, skin colour, presumed religious [...]

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quality of life

Quality of Life (QoL) is a measure in health economics. It expresses the effect of factors such as symptoms, pain, psychological health, and wellbeing on people’s lives. Health-related [...]

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pseudonymisation

According to Article 4 of the GDPR, personal data may no longer be attributed to a specific data subject without recourse to additional information, provided that this additional information is [...]

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proportionality

The adjustment of research ethics processes to the level of risk anticipated in any particular project. This may include less intensive ethics review or information and consent requirements for [...]

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profiling

According to Article 4(4) of the GDPR, personal data are processed for the purpose of evaluating certain aspects of a natural person’s life (economic situation, health, personal [...]

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probability

Probability is a measure of the likelihood that a particular event will occur. Probability is quantified as a number between 0 and 1 (where 0 indicates impossibility and 1 indicates certainty). [...]

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privacy by design

Privacy by Design is an approach taken when creating new technologies and systems. It is when privacy is incorporated into tech and systems, by default. It means your product is designed with [...]

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privacy

The concept of privacy may be expressed in two main ways: It can be thought of in a relatively passive fashion as respect for a feeling on the part of individuals that they would not wish certain [...]

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personal data

Information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person (‘data subject’); an identifiable Natural person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by [...]

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outlier

In statistics, an outlier is an observation point that is distant from other observations, i.e. some data points will be further away from the sample mean than what is deemed reasonable. An [...]

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operating procedures

Detailed specifications of processes to be followed by bodies such as research ethics committees in dealing with matters such as the reviewing of applications, the hearing of appeals against [...]

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open data

The term refers to the public availability, by download, of structured databases. These data may be re-used in a non-monetary way under the conditions of a specific licence, which may in [...]

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obligations

Explicit or implicit requirements for the conduct of persons and organizations involved in research towards participants, funders etc. that are established by ethics principles, codes or [...]

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non-maleficence

This is linked to the idea of Beneficence in Principlism. It is a way of recognizing that it may be very difficult to demonstrate that research will actually yield a direct benefit to specific [...]

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neural networks

Family of machine learning (see the diagram under machine learning), whose design was originally schematically inspired by the functioning of biological neurons and which, subsequently, came [...]

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misuse

If research data or findings are used for purposes that were not declared as part of the initial research design and are associated with actual or potential harm, this may constitute misuse. A [...]

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misrepresentation

Where falsities are asserted as facts, where other people’s views, utterances or actions are reported inaccurately or falsely, or where research findings are not truthfully published or otherwise [...]

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maleficence

Refers to causing harm or seeking to cause harm. It may imply ‘evil’ intent but can also be used where the harm is not intentional. In ethics, ‘non-maleficence’ is commonly paired with [...]

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machine learning

Machine learning makes it possible to construct a mathematical model from data, including a large number of variables that are not known in advance.  The parameters are configured as you go [...]

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liberty

The state of being free within society from oppressive restrictions imposed by authority on one’s way of life, behaviour, or political views.

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legal personhood

An individual who has legal status with a state, such as citizenship. “The function of legal personhood is to attribute value and rights to the individual” (Dyschkant 2015, 2107).

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k-nearest neighbors

Also, kNN. A machine learning algorithm that classifies things based on their similarity to nearby neighbors. You tune the algorithm’s execution by picking how many neighbors to examine (k) as [...]

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k-means clustering

“A data mining algorithm to cluster, classify, or group your N objects based on their attributes or features into K number of groups (so-called clusters).”[parsian] See also clustering  Wikipedia entry

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justice

Different conceptions of justice exist and there is disagreement about how they might be applied to research. Justice is one of the four principles introduced in the Belmont Report (Department of [...]

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internet of things

The network of physical objects or “things” embedded with electronics, software, sensors and connectivity to enable it to achieve greater value and service by exchanging data with the [...]

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intelligibility

The degree to which a model’s predictions can be readily explained. Deep models are often non-interpretable; that is, a deep model’s different layers can be hard to decipher. By [...]

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interpretability

The degree to which a model’s predictions can be readily explained. Deep models are often non-interpretable; that is, a deep model’s different layers can be hard to decipher. By [...]

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informed consent

Informed consent implies that participants need to have substantial understanding of, and agree voluntarily to, the nature of the research and their role within it. Participants need to have the [...]

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human rights

“Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, regardless of race, sex, nationality, ethnicity, language, religion, or any other status. Human rights include the right to life and [...]

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honesty

The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity (All European Academies 2017) identifies honesty ‘in developing, undertaking, reviewing, reporting and communicating research in a transparent, [...]

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harm

Joel Feinberg (1984) defined harm as the ‘defeating of an interest’, where the interests of an individual are defined as ‘the range of things in which that individual has a stake’. Although the [...]

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hacker

A person who spends their time trying to gain access to information stored on other people’s computers all around the world. Some hackers are just harmless browsing types, but others have [...]

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GDPR

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) replaces the Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC and was designed to harmonise data privacy laws across Europe, to protect and empower all EU citizens [...]

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governance

The policies, rules, processes and behaviour that determine how powers are exercised. The European Commission (2001) has expressed these as a set of five principles which should inform the work [...]

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fraud

Fraud is ‘a deliberate act of deception intended for personal gain or to cause a loss to another party’ (European Anti-Fraud Office 2018). Researchers may commit fraud – sometimes in the form of [...]

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false positive

An example in which the model mistakenly predicted the positive class. For example, the model inferred that a particular email message was spam (the positive class), but that email message was [...]

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false negative

An example in which the model mistakenly predicted the negative class. For example, the model inferred that a particular email message was not spam (the negative class), but that email message [...]

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explicability

Explainability, meanwhile, is the extent to which the internal mechanics of a machine or deep learning system can be explained in human terms. It’s easy to miss the subtle difference with [...]

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explainability

Explainability, meanwhile, is the extent to which the internal mechanics of a machine or deep learning system can be explained in human terms. It’s easy to miss the subtle difference with [...]

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eu regulation

A regulation is a written rule or law. European regulations are binding legislative acts. They must be applied in their entirety across the EU simultaneously from the date agreed. Regulations can [...]

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ethis committee

An Ethics Committee is an independent body made up of a range of individuals including medical or scientific professionals and non-medical or non-scientific members (e.g. patients or lay [...]

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equity

The word has a number of meanings. In the research context, it usually refers to arrangements or distributions that are proportional to the contribution or desert and, in these senses, fair. An [...]

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environmental health

Environmental health is the science and practice of preventing human injury and illness and promoting well-being by Identifying and evaluating environmental sources and hazardous agents and [...]

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end user

The final user of a piece of Software or Hardware, i.e. the individual person for whom the product is created, as distinct from the people who create and produce the product.

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dual use

Research that, based on current understanding, can reasonably be anticipated to provide knowledge, information, products, or technologies that could be used to present a threat to public health [...]

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diversity

It refers to the inclusion of a wide range of people and groups in an activity. The motto of the European Union, “united in diversity” signifies how Europeans from many different cultures, [...]

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