The policies, rules, processes and behaviour that determine how powers are exercised.
The European Commission (2001) has expressed these as a set of five principles which should inform the work of all European institutions, including those responsible for funding and directing research. These principles are: openness, participation, accountability, effectiveness and coherence. Civil society organizations, which would include most academies, universities and research institutes, are expected to adopt the same principles. A more recent report for the European Commission (2015) emphasized that good sectoral governance in research and innovation required ‘openness and participation through a network approach rather than a linear, top-down chain of command’. This may be in tension with other contemporary pressures. These include the common legal expectation that a controlling mind can be identified and held personally accountable for the actions of an organization. Many civil society organizations are also subject to countervailing expectations that they will operate on supposed market models which emphasize charismatic or transformational leadership by individuals rather than devolved or transactional forms, where leadership is distributed throughout.