Fraud is ‘a deliberate act of deception intended for personal gain or to cause a loss to another party’ (European Anti-Fraud Office 2018).
Researchers may commit fraud – sometimes in the form of fabrication or falsification – in order to gain grants or jobs. A significant proportion of retractions of journal articles are the result of fraud, or suspected fraud, by the author or corporate interests. In biomedicine and other disciplines, fraud can distort the evidence base and lead to harm to patients. In engineering, construction and materials, fraud may lead to serious technological failures that harm both individuals and communities.