Research that, based on current understanding, can reasonably be anticipated to provide knowledge, information, products, or technologies that could be used to present a threat to public health and safety, plants, animals, the natural environment, or national security.
Although more commonly associated with technological or medical research, the concept has been shown to apply to life science (Selgelid 2009), ICT (Rodrigues 2015) and social science research. An example of the latter might be the placement of anthropologists with troops in the field in the controversial human terrain system conducted by the United States Army (Gonzalez 2018). An alternative view on dual use and the work of social scientists alongside the military is offered by Durkin (2015). See also